Food Allergy

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More than 50 million Americans have some form of allergy. You may know one of these people or you may be. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, food allergies affect 4 – 6% of children and 4% of adults.

Symptoms of food allergies are most common in infants and children, but they can appear at any age. You can even cause allergies to foods you’ve eaten for years without any problems. Do you suspect you have a food allergy? The allergist can diagnose your symptoms and determine the source.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Symptoms

body’s immune system keeps you healthy by fighting infections and other risks. A food allergic reaction occurs when your immune system overpowers a food or a substance in a food, identifies it as a hazard and causes a protective reaction.

Although families have allergies, it is impossible to predict whether a child will inherit a parent’s food allergy or a sibling. Some research suggests that the younger siblings of a child with peanut allergies may also be allergic to peanuts.

Symptoms of a food allergy can range from mild to severe. Just because the initial reaction causes some discomfort does not mean that all reactions will be the same. Food that causes only minor symptoms at one time can cause more severe symptoms at another time.

The most severe allergic reaction is anaphylaxis. A deadly whole-body allergic reaction that can impair your breathing can cause a dramatic drop in your blood pressure and affect your heart rate. Anaphylaxis can occur within minutes of exposure to active food. It can be fatal and should be treated immediately with an injection of epinephrine (adrenaline).

Although any food can cause a negative reaction, eight types of food account for 90% of all reactions.

1-Eggs

2-Milk

3-Peanuts

 4-Trees Nuts

5- Fish

6-Shellfish

7-Wheat

8-Soy

Some seeds, including sesame and mustard seeds (the main ingredient in spice mustard), also trigger common food allergies and in some countries it is a major allergen. Considered.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include skin, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system and respiratory tract. They can raise the level in one or more of the following ways.

Vomiting and / or abdominal pain

  • Hives
  • Shortness of breathloss of
  • wheezing
  • Frequent cough
  • Shock orcirculation
  • Severe sore throat Difficulty swallowing
  • Swelling in the tongue, impaired ability to speak or breathe
  • Weak pulse
  • Light or blue skin color
  • Dizziness or fainting

Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal reaction that can interfere with breathing and It can traumatize the body. The reaction can affect different parts of the body at the same time (for example, abdominal pain with urgency).

Most food-related symptoms occur within two hours of ingestion. They often start within minutes. In some very rare cases, the reaction may take four to six hours or more. Delays are most common in children who develop eczema as a symptom of a food allergy and in people who are rarely allergic to red meat due to the bite of a lone star tick.

Another type of delayed food allergy reaction is caused by food protein-induced intercolitis syndrome (FPIES), a severe gastrointestinal reaction that usually occurs in milk, soy, some grains and some other solid foods. Occurs two to six hours after eating. It is most common in newborns who are being fed for the first time or who are being weaned. FPIES involves frequent vomiting and can lead to dehydration. In some cases, children will develop bloody diarrhea. Because the symptoms are similar to a viral illness or bacterial infection, the diagnosis of FPIES may be delayed. FPIES is a medical emergency that should be treated with IV rehydration.

Not everyone who experiences symptoms after eating certain foods has a food allergy or needs to avoid that food altogether. For example, some people experience itchy mouth and throat after eating raw or cooked fruits or vegetables. It can indicate an oral allergy syndrome – a pollen reaction, not the food itself. The immune system recognizes pollen and similar proteins in food and directs an allergic reaction. Allergies are destroyed by heating the food, after which it can be eaten without any hassle.

Knowing that we can see [Jaisley’s] needs, he has just given her the opportunity to spread her wings and fly. Jaisley’s mother

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  : Triggers

Once a food allergy is diagnosed, the most effective treatment is to avoid food. Foods related to food allergies in children are:

  1. Milk
  2. Eggs
  3. Peanuts
  4. Children can increase their allergic reactions to milk and eggs. Allergies to peanuts and tree nuts are likely to persist.
  5. The most common food allergens in adults are:
  6. fruit and vegetable pollen (oral allergy syndrome)
  7. Peanuts and tree nuts 
  8. Fish and shellfish

Specific foods Allergic people may also react to related foods Is. One person may be allergic to a tree nut and may cause a cross reaction in others. People who are allergic to shrimp may react to shrimp and lobster. Someone who is allergic to peanuts – which are actually beans, not nuts – may have a problem with tree nuts, such as pecans, walnuts, almonds and cashews. In very rare cases, they may have problems with other levies (except soy).

One of the reasons to learn about patterns of cross-reactivation and what to avoid is that people with food allergies should seek care from a board-certified allergist. Determining if you are cross reactive is not straightforward. Allergy testing may not be specific enough for many things in the same “family” – many times, these tests are positive, due to the fact that the “family” can also test two types of food. Are If you have tolerated it well in the past, then food that is theoretically cross reactive will not have to be avoided in any way.

Negative tests can be very helpful in eliminating allergies. In the case of a positive test for foods that you have never eaten but relate to items that you have been allergic to, an oral food challenge is the best way to determine if Whether there is any danger to food.

Diagnosis of food allergies

Whenever trigger food is eaten, food allergies will usually cause some kind of reaction. Symptoms may vary from person to person, and you may not always experience the same symptoms during each reaction. Allergic food-related reactions can affect the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system. It is impossible to estimate how severe the next reaction can be, and all patients with food allergies should be carefully advised about the risk of anaphylaxis, a potentially fatal reaction to epinephrine (adrenaline). Is done.

Although food allergies can develop at any age, they most often appear in childhood. If you suspect a food allergy, see an allergist, who will take your family and medical history, decide which tests (if any) to perform and use this information to determine Check for food allergies.

To diagnose allergies, allergists ask detailed questions about your medical history and your symptoms. Be prepared to answer questions about it:

what and how much did you eat?

How long

did it take for the symptoms to develop? What symptoms did you experience and how long did they last?

After taking your date, your allergist may order a skin test and / or blood test, which may indicate if your body has food-related immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. :

Skin tests provide results in 20 minutes. A small amount of food allergy liquid is placed on the skin of your arm or back. Your skin is subjected to a small disinfectant probe, which removes fluid from under the skin. This test, which is not painful but not painful, is considered positive if a wheel (similar to a mosquito bite) develops in the area where the suspected allergy was placed. As a control, you will also get skin sips with a liquid that is not allergic. This will not allow the two to compare between test sites.

Blood tests, which are slightly less accurate than skin tests, measure the amount of IgE antibody in specific foods. Results are usually available in about a week and are reported as numerical value.

Your allergist will use these tests to diagnose the results. A positive result does not necessarily indicate an allergy, although a negative result is useful.

In some cases, the allergist will recommend an oral food challenge, which is considered the best way to diagnose food allergies. During the oral food challenge, which is carried out under strict medical supervision, the patient periodically.

Suspicious trigger food is fed in increasing quantities from time to time, then after a few hours of observation it is known whether there is any reaction. This test is helpful when the patient’s history is unclear or if skin or blood tests are inconsistent. It can also be used to determine if an allergy has developed.

Because of the possibility of a severe reaction, an oral food challenge should only be performed in a doctor’s office or at a food challenge center by an experienced allergist, who has emergency medicine and supplies.

Management and treatment

The main way to manage food allergies is to avoid foods that cause you anxiety. Carefully check the labels of food ingredients, and learn that what you need to avoid is also known by other names.

The Food Allergy Labeling and Consumer Protection Act 2004 (FALCPA) mandates that manufacturers of packaged foods manufactured in the United States, in simple, clear language, identify the presence of any of the eight common food allergens. ۔ Milk, eggs, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish and crustacean shellfish. In their products. It is important to report the presence of an allergen, even if it is only an incidental ingredient, such as an additive or flavor.

Precautionary statements may also be placed on some equipment, such as “may contain,” “may be,” “made on shared equipment,” “made in a shared facility” or any other indication of possible allergen contamination. There are no laws or regulations requiring warnings regarding these consultations and there are no standards that conform to them. If you have questions about which foods are safe for you, talk to your allergist.

It should be noted that FALCPA labeling requirements are not binding on regular items by the US Department of Agriculture (certain meat, poultry and egg products) and the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (Ast Spirit, Wine and Beer). The law also does not apply to cosmetics, shampoos and other health and beauty aids, some of which may contain tree nut juice or wheat protein.

It’s easier said than done. Although labeling has helped make the process a little easier, some foods are so common that they are difficult to avoid. A dietitian or nutritionist can help. These dieticians will offer tips to avoid your food that trigger your allergies and make sure that even if you exclude certain foods from your diet, you will still be able to meet your needs. All nutrients will be found. Special kickboxes and support groups can also provide useful information for patients with specific allergies, either personally or online.

Many people with food allergies wonder if their condition is permanent. There is no definitive answer. Allergies to milk, eggs, wheat, and soy can disappear over time, while allergies to peanuts, nuts, fish, and shellfish last a lifetime.

eating out

Be extra careful whenin restaurants. The waiter (and sometimes the kitchen staff) may not always know the ingredients of each dish on the menu. Depending on your sensitivity, just walking around in the kitchen or a restaurant can cause an allergic reaction.

Available on many websites – consider using a “chef card” – which identifies your allergies and what you can’t eat. Always tell your servers about your allergies and ask the chef if possible. Emphasize the level of preparation, the need for pans, utensils and utensils that are not contaminated by your allergens, and explain to the restaurant staff which dishes are safe for you on the menu.

Symptomatically

of food allergies can range from mild to fatal. The intensity of each reaction is unpredictable. People who experience only mild symptoms at first may experience a sudden lethal reaction called an aphylaxis, which, among other things, can cause breathing difficulties and cause a sudden drop in blood pressure. That’s why allergists don’t like to classify food allergies as “mild” or “severe” – there’s no way to tell what might happen with the next reaction. In the United States, food allergies are the leading cause of an aphylaxis outside of hospital settings.

Epinephrine (adrenaline) is the first line of treatment for influenza, which triggers a flood of chemicals when exposed to allergens that can traumatize your body. Anaphylaxis can occur within seconds or minutes after exposure to the allergen, can worsen quickly and can be fatal.

Once you have been diagnosed with a food allergy, your allergist should prescribe an epinephrine auto injector and teach you how to use it. You should also be given a written treatment plan outlining which medications you have been prescribed and when they should be used. Check your auto injector’s expiration date, note the expiration date on your calendar, and ask your pharmacy for prescription reminder services.

Anyone with a food allergy should always have an auto injector nearby. Make sure two doses are available, as severe reactions can recur in about 20% of people. There are no data to predict who may need a second dose of epinephrine, so this recommendation applies to all patients with food allergies.

If you experience severe symptoms such as immediate shortness of breath, recurrent cough, weak pulse, hives, stiffness in your throat, difficulty breathing or swallowing, or a combination of symptoms from different parts of the body , Such as hives, irritation or swelling. Skin combined with indigestion, diarrhea or abdominal pain. Frequent doses may be necessary. You should call an ambulance (or have someone nearby do it) and let the dispatcher know that epinephrine has been administered and more may be needed. You should be taken to the emergency room. The hospital has different policies for monitoring different patients who are given epinephrine.

If you are not sure if a reaction guarantees epinephrine, use it now; The benefits of epinephrine far outweigh the risk that a single dose may not be necessary.

Common side effects of epinephrine include anxiety, restlessness, dizziness and tremors. In very rare cases, medications can cause abnormal heart rates, heart attacks, blood pressure in the lungs, and rapid fluid build-up. If you have some pre-existing conditions, such as heart disease or diabetes, you may be at higher risk for the side effects of epinephrine. Nevertheless, epinephrine is considered extremely safe and is one of the most effective drugs for treating severe allergic reactions.

Other medications may be prescribed to treat food allergy symptoms, but it is important to note that there is no substitute for epinephrine: it is the only drug that can reverse the life-threatening symptoms of anaphylaxis.

 

Managing food allergies in children

No parent wants to see their child suffer. Because the effects of deadly and near-fatal food allergies can be found at school or elsewhere outside the home, parents of a child with a food allergy must ensure that their child’s school has a written emergency plan in place. The plan should provide guidance on the prevention, recognition and management of food allergies and should be available at school and during activities such as sports events and field trips. If your child is prescribed an auto injector, make sure you and your child’s caregivers understand how to use it.

In November 2013, President Barack Obama signed the School Access Emergency Epinephrine Act (PL 113-48), which encourages states to adopt laws requiring schools to install epinephrine auto-injectors. Is. By the end of 2014, dozens of states had passed laws requiring either schools to supply epinephrine auto-injectors for general use or to authorize school districts to supply epinephrine. Many of these laws are new, and it is not certain how well they are being enforced. As a result, the ACAAI still recommends that states with such laws administer at least two units of epinephrine per school to children with food allergies.

                    

 Can food allergies be prevented?

In 2013, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a study that supported research showing that eating solid foods in very few children can promote allergies. It recommends introducing solid foods to babies under 17 weeks of age. It also advises exclusive breastfeeding “as far as possible”, but does not hesitate to confirm preliminary research on six months of exclusive breastfeeding.

Research on the benefits of feeding hypoallergenic formulas to high-risk infants – people born into families with a strong history of allergic diseases.

In the case of peanut allergies, the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) released a new 2017 report describing high, moderate and low-risk children with peanut allergies Issue the latest instructions. The guidelines also outline how to proceed with a risk-based introduction.

The latest guidelines are a breakthrough for peanut allergy prevention. Peanut allergies have become more common in recent years, and there is now a roadmap to prevent many new cases.

According to the new guidelines, a child at high risk of developing peanut allergies has severe eczema and / or egg allergies. The guideline recommends the introduction of peanut-rich foods within 4-6 months for high-risk children who have already started solid foods, after determining whether to do so. is safe. Parents should be aware that most infants are moderate or low risk for developing peanut allergies, and most can use peanut-based foods at home. Whole peanuts should never be given to newborns as they are at risk of suffocation.

If your baby doesn’t have high-risk factors, the best way to introduce peanuts is to make sure your baby is healthy – they don’t have a cold, fever or anything. Make sure this is not the first meal

 

 

 


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